Polyester Resin and Everything About It

by | Resin

Polyester resin is a material that is used to make various things and to produce various components used in model making, boat building, or the construction of ponds and swimming pools.

Various fiber composites can be produced by using polyester resin. Unsaturated polyester resin is quite similar to epoxy resin.

What is Polyester Resin?

Polyester resins are unsaturated synthetic resins. These are formed by the reaction of dibasic organic acids and polyhydric alcohols. Maleic Anhydride is generally used raw material with diacid functionality.

Thermoset Polyester resins are created by combining alcohol such as; ethylene glycol with an organic acid such as; maleic anhydride.

Properties of Polyester

Polyester resin is difficult to ignite. It is self-extinguishing. When it burns, it creates a shiny, yellow-orange color. Polyesters are resistant to weak alkalis, cold acids, bleach, and most organic solvents. 

Polyester is the least costly of all the resins. The properties of this synthetic resin are largely variable. The incorporation of a great number of filling materials and colorants plays an important part. 

The workpieces are water-resistant after they are cured. They go well with diluted, non-oxidizing acids and aqueous salt solutions.

The Polyester Resin is used in the fiberglass cloth. This hardens and gives the board its protection and rigid structure.

The Function of Polyester Resin

  • It is used for boat building. It is also used for the casting of bumpers or gutters. The resin is very suitable for the repairing of all types of plastic parts.
  • It is used for boat building. It is also used for the casting of bumpers or gutters. The resin is very suitable for the repairing of all types of plastic parts.
  • It is used for boat building. It is also used for the casting of bumpers or gutters. The resin is very suitable for the repairing of all types of plastic parts.
  • It is used for boat building. It is also used for the casting of bumpers or gutters. The resin is very suitable for the repairing of all types of plastic parts.
  • It is used for boat building. It is also used for the casting of bumpers or gutters. The resin is very suitable for the repairing of all types of plastic parts.
  • It is used for boat building. It is also used for the casting of bumpers or gutters. The resin is very suitable for the repairing of all types of plastic parts.

History of Polyester Resin

The polyester resin was first invented by the Swedish chemist Berzelius in 1847.

Unsaturated polyester is derived from the 1933 patent of Carleton Ellis.

Commercial development of polyesters for creating molds started in the USA in 1941. It began with the introduction of a heat-curing alkyl casting resin. This was followed by a low-pressure laminating resin made based on allyl diglycol carbonate. It is used for glass fabric reinforced radomes for aircraft.

Polyester is a staple of the textile industry from the time of its invention in the 1940s. The material produces a fabric that does not shrink or wrinkle by combining with cotton.

This process is the so-called ‘cold cure’ system. Such plastics are transparent to radar. This made it capable of immediate use for wartime applications. 

Types of Polyester Resin

There are a few types of polyester resin.

1. Saturated Polyester Resin 

These are the reaction products of dibasic acids or dibasic acid chlorides with diols. These are largely used in textile industries. For example; Polyethylene terephthalate.

2. Alkyd Resin 

Alkyds are the reaction products of polyhydric alcohols with fatty acids followed by reactions with dibasic acids. They are largely used in the painting and printing industry.

3. Vinyl Ester Resin 

Vinyl ester resin has an essential use in new industrial applications including coating, printed circuit boards, metal foil laminates, building materials, automotive parts, rigid foams, and fiber-reinforced composites.

4. Unsaturated Polyester Resin

These types of resins are very good to make trays, water tanks, boats, shower stalls, swimming pools, etc.

Acrylic modified unsaturated polyester resin has good cracking resistance and flexibility.

5. Fire-resistant

The fire resistance of polyester resins is improved by blending with flame retardant additives. Triphenyl antimony trioxide and phosphate are flame retardant additives. This type of resin is generally used in electrical equipment,  fume hoods, building panels, and navy boats.

6. Electrical Resistant

This type of resin is mainly used in printed circuit boards, electrical appliances, and electronic equipment.

There are a few more types but the above-mentioned are the most common types of polyesters.

Advantages of Polyester Resin

  • Polyester is easy to handle
  • It is cost-effective
  • It poses dimensional stability
  • It has chemical resistance and electrical properties. 

Disadvantages of Polyester Resin

Polyester resin system materials may create skin irritations, allergic reactions, and skin burning problems. The reason for burning is not clear but many guesses that the burns are perhaps because of styrene and organic peroxides. 

There is a possibility for atmospheric pollution by styrene and explosion. There is another risk which is fire risk from organic peroxides. It must be prevented.

Final Words

Polyester resin has a high resistance to moisture absorption specifically if compared to Nylon and, so, is dimensionally stable. 

A great variety of polyesters are seen. Within this large variety, strength and other particular properties vary as well. 

The material has excellent electrical properties, heat, and aging resistance, low creep, good color retention, and water resistance.

Reference

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