Phenolic Resin Definition, Properties, Function, History, Types, Advantages & Disadvantages

by | Resin

The phenolic resins may be the primitive polymeric products that were produced commercially from general compounds of low molecular weight. 

They were the first truly synthetic resin to be burst out. Phenolic resins are invented in a myriad of industrial products. They are mainly used in the manufacture of circuit boards.

Let’s learn what is phenolic Resin, its Definition, Properties, Function, History, Types, Advantages, Disadvantages, and the difference between Epoxy Resin and Phenolic Resin.

Phenolic Resin Definition

Phenolic resin is a heat-cured plastic formed by a reaction of carbon-based alcohol.

Phenol formaldehyde resins (PF) are spurious polymers obtained by the reaction of phenol.

Properties of Phenolic Resin

Different desirable characteristics such as higher-ranking mechanical strength, heat resistance, and extent stability, as well as high resistance against several solvents, acids, and beverages.

Phenolic resin named by the trade name Bakelite latest inventor Leo Baekeland, are known for their warmth resistance. They can be fragile. The resins are categorized as novolac and resole. 

Some phenolics are made to withstand temperatures as high as 550°F. Most are impervious to condensation. Phenolic molding compounds are produced in a diversity of formulations for expanding fire resistance. It is very easy to form.

It is soft and has a lustrous facet. Normally it seems hard with better proportion stability. It may be fragile in thinness and power.

The Functions of Phenolic Resin

Phenolic resin is used in various applications. Such as:

  •  Their high resistance makes them useful and abrasive cut-off.
  • The resins are used to improve the manufacture of vulcanized products such as tires. 
  • They are accumulated with sand to produce metal casting molds.
  • They set out as binding agents in the manufacturing brick.
  • It is used in circuit houses.
  • Phenolic resins are used to make electrical equipment and it is needed to make caps, handles, radio cabinets, furniture, knobs, vacuum cleaner, and engineer ignition equipment.
  • It is also used in Laminated Material rods and tubes are made in great diversity from fabric paper.
  • Phenolic resin is also used in casting and potting.

History of Phenolic Resin

Phenolic resins have been under continuous evolution as an important thermosetting resin material.

Seeing the initial successful trial production of the spurious resin in Japan in 1911. 

This fresh research and development are founded on detailed prediction and investigation of the hardened structures.

Phenol formaldehyde is a synthetic polymer acquired by the reaction of substituted phenol with formaldehyde. 

It is used as the basis for bakelite. They were at one time the primary material used for the mold.

Types of Phenolic Resin

Phenolic resin is divided into two different types.

  • Novolacs.
  • Resoles.

1. Novolaces

formaldehyde resins made until the molar ratio of formaldehyde is less than one. The polymerization is brought to accomplishment using acid–catalysis such as oxalic acid, hydrochloric acid.

The phenol units are mainly linked by methylene and/or ether batch. Novolaces are often used as photoresists. The molecular loads are in the low thousands, corresponding to about 10–23 phenol units.

There are many in the phenolic resin category.  TCC makes Novolac resins for client identification.

Hexamethylenetetramine is a hardener added to cross-link novolac. At a temperature of >90° C, the hexamine configuration cross-links to make methylene and methylamino bridges.

2. Resoles

Base–catalyzed phenol-formaldehyde resins made with a formaldehyde to phenol, ratio of larger than 1. These resins are named resoles. Phenol, formaldehyde, water are mixed in the wanted amount, depending on the resin to form and then heat. 

The very first part of the reaction, around 70° C, forms a thick reddish-brown tacky material, which is enriched in hydroxymethyl and benzylic cliché 

The rate of the base-catalyzed reaction firstly rises with pH. Then reaches a maximum of about pH = 10. The reactive is the phenoxide anion (C6H50–) formed by deprotonation of phenol. 

The negative charge is not localized over the aromatic ring.

Rissoles, our vital or polymeric resin materials broadly used for cooling, bonding building materials, exterior plywood oriented strand board (OSB), engineered laminated composite lumber (LCL) are some of the typical applications.

Disadvantages of Phenolic Resin

Formaldehyde is highly toxic when it comes to eye contact and ingestion, and moderately toxic for skin contact. Phenols in phenol-formaldehyde resins are very poisonous for skin absorption. It can burn skin.

Phenol may have its share of uses and health benefits but it can be toxic or cause long-term health effects. If you’re exposed to it in high amounts. 

Here are a few tips to circumvent exposure: Be careful at work and being exposed to phenol in industrial facilities may increase your risk of heart disease.

Formaldehyde is an irritant. It is also a strong sensitizer and is a probable human carcinogen. Phenol can severely burn skin.

If these resins are mistakenly cured, they may cause irritation and allergic reactions. Machining, sanding, or immoderate heating of the cured resins can cause decomposition to release formaldehyde.

Advantages of Phenolic Resin

One of the main advantages of phenolic resins is that phenolic resins have almost all the usefulness of epoxy resins.

It is normally less expensive. 

If we compare Epoxy Resin Table Tops to Phenolic Resin Table Tops, many people found phenolic resins a relatively new category of resin with several distinct edges. 

It performs especially well when it is used in laboratory circumstances.

Final Words

Even after 100 years, till now phenolic resin continues to be a very useful resin system. It is an omnipresent adhesive for a diverse spectrum of materials such as wood, glass, metal. Many recent technical conferences have been held about it. 

I believe you have got a clear concept about the phenolic Resin Definition, Properties, Function, History, Types, Advantages, Disadvantages, and the difference between Epoxy Resin and Phenolic Resin.

Reference

  1. www.sciencedirect.com
  2. www.thomasnet.com
  3. www.corrosionpedia.com

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